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August 29, 2022

Battery Management System for Electric Vehicles Overview

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the benefits of a BMS?

A battery management system will monitor the state of a battery, its environment and modulate I/O to ensure optimal battery performance and reduce risk. There are different parameters which are tuned to optimize different aspects:

  • Charge and discharge current limits are tuned to reduce heating up of the battery and thereby avoid hazardous situations and increase battery lifespan
  • Charge and discharge current limits are also tuned to improve battery efficiency and hence vehicle range
  • Well tuned fuel gauge meter or SOC estimation results improves accuracy in range prediction and reduces range anxiety

What is a service battery charging system?

A battery charging system is used to control the electrical energy from the car’s alternator. It keeps the charge in the car's battery and provides electrical energy for the car’s systems. Such systems include the lights, windows, radio, etc. 

What kind of batteries are commonly used for EVs?

Batteries function as energy storage systems. Batteries are differentiated by their materials and compositions. The following are the prominent battery types which either have already found applications in EVs or are under research stage due to their potential:

Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium ion battery packs offer high energy-to-weight ratio, power-to-weight ratio, efficiency, good high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge. Challenges include recycling cost, useful life, and potential hazards from overheating and thermal runaway

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery

Nickel metal hydride battery packs offer good life cycles, abuse tolerance and are environment friendly. Challenges include cost, self-discharge, specific energy and power constraints, and non linear behavior in high temperature

Nickel-Cadmium Battery

Nickel cadmium batteries offer good lifespans. Challenges include partial charge-discharge cycle performance and toxicity

Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery

Sodium nickel chloride batteries offer good life cycles and are environment friendly. Challenges include specific power constraints, safety, long-term charge storage and cold weather performance

Lead-Acid Battery

Lead acid batteries offer good cost, safety and reliability. Challenges include cold temperature performance and low lifespans

Solid-state Battery

Solid state batteries offer specific energy and power characteristics. This technology is still in the research stage, however, has shown great promise


Ultracapacitors are commonly used as secondary energy-storage devices. They offer quick power delivery and good storage characteristics. Challenges are primarily cost

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